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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed   KSM  Go Back ↑ and register your vote.

(Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد‎; also transliterated as Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and additionally known by at least fifty aliases)[3][4][5] (born March 1, 1964, or April 14, 1965) is a prisoner in U.S. custody for alleged acts of terrorism, including mass murder of civilians. He was charged on February 11, 2008, with war crimes and murder by a U.S. military commission and faces the death penalty if convicted.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was a member of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization, although he lived in Kuwait rather than Afghanistan, heading al-Qaeda's propaganda operations from sometime around 1999. According to the 9/11 Commission Report he was "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks." He is also believed to have confessed to a role in many of the most significant terrorist plots over the last twenty years, including the World Trade Center 1993 bombings, the Operation Bojinka plot, an aborted 2002 attack on the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles, the Bali nightclub bombings, the failed bombing of American Airlines Flight 63, the Millennium Plot, and the murder of Daniel Pearl.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was captured in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, on March 1, 2003, by the Pakistani ISI, possibly in a joint action with agents of the American Diplomatic Security Service, and has been in U.S. custody since that time. In September 2006, the U.S. government announced it had moved Mohammed from a secret prison to the facility at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[6] The Red Cross, Human Rights Watch and Mohammed have claimed that the harsh treatment and waterboarding he received from U.S. authorities, amounts to torture.[7][8]

In March 2007, after four years in captivity, including six months of detention at Guantanamo Bay, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed — as it was claimed by a Combatant Status Review Tribunal Hearing[9] in Guantanamo Bay — confessed to masterminding the September 11, 2001, attacks, the Richard Reid shoe bombing attempt to blow up an airliner over the Atlantic Ocean, the Bali nightclub bombing in Indonesia, the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and various foiled attacks.[10]

On December 8, 2008, Mohammed and four co-defendants sent a note to the military judge expressing their desire to confess and plead guilty.

    Early life

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is usually reported to have been born in Kuwait to parents from Baluchistan in Pakistan.[1] He spent some of his formative years in Kuwait, just like his nephew, Ramzi Yousef (three years his junior). He joined the Muslim Brotherhood at age sixteen. He returned to Pakistan soon after, and after spending some time there, went to the United States for further study.

He attended Chowan College, a small Baptist school in Murfreesboro, North Carolina, for a semester (beginning in 1983) before transferring to the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and completing a degree in mechanical engineering in 1986.[12][13] The following year he went to Afghanistan, where he and his brothers (Zahed, Abed, and Aref) fought against the Soviet Union during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (Some sources claim that Khalid was fighting in Afghanistan before he moved to the United States.) There, he was introduced to Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, of the Islamic Union Party. The 9/11 Commission Report notes on page 149 that "Sayyaf was close to Ahmed Shah Massoud, the leader of the Afghan Northern Alliance".

The 9/11 Commission Report also notes that, "By his own account, KSM's animus toward the United States stemmed not from his experiences there as a student, but rather from his violent disagreement with U.S. foreign policy favoring Israel."[14]

However, according to a US intelligence summary reported on August 29, 2009 by the Washington Post, his time in the U.S did lead him to become a terrorist. "KSM's limited and negative experience in the United States — which included a brief jail stay because of unpaid bills — almost certainly helped propel him on his path to becoming a terrorist," according to this intelligence summary. "He stated that his contact with Americans, while minimal, confirmed his view that the United States was a debauched and racist country."[15]

According to the 9/11 Commission, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed after the Afghan jihad went to work for an electronics company, working on communications equipment. In 1988, he helped to head a non-governmental organization paid for by Abu Sayyaf, which sponsored and aided Afghan fighters against the Soviets. He continued this work until 1992, when he fought with Muslim fighters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and supported this effort financially.[citation needed]

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed moved to Qatar to work in a government office as a project engineer for the Qatari Ministry of Electricity and Water. He stayed at this job until 1996.[citation needed]
    Philippines 1994–1995

While he was in the Philippines in late 1994 and early 1995, he said that he was a Saudi or a Qatari plywood exporter and used the aliases Abdul Majid and Salem Ali.[16][17]

According to Philippine police, a waitress named Arminda Costudio at the Manila Bay Club in Pasay City claimed that she met a man who introduced himself as Qatari businessman Salem Ali, who she believes was Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, based on his fattened middle finger — a feature that Abdul Hakim Murad has also described. She said she met the man twice at the Shangri-La Hotel in Makati City in mid-1994. Each time, he wore a white tuxedo and paid for dinner with a wad of cash. He gave out candies to group members. Costudio later became the girlfriend of Wali Khan Amin Shah while he was in Metro Manila.[18]
    Bosnia, 1995
Main article: Bosnian War

News agency Adnkronos reports Khalid Sheik Mohammed traveled to Bosnia in September 1995, and worked there, under an assumed name, for Egyptian Relief, as a humanitarian aid worker.[19] Quoting a Sarajevo paper called Daily Fokus, they reported local intelligence officials confirmed he obtained Bosnian citizenship in November 1995. Those officials told Daily Fokus that Egyptian Relief was a front for the Muslim Brotherhood.
    Qatar, avoiding arrest

In early 1996 he fled to Pakistan to avoid capture by U.S. authorities.[20] In his flight from Qatar he was sheltered by Sheikh Abdullah Bin Khalid Al-Thani, who was the Qatari Minister of Religious Affairs in 1996.[21][22][23][24][25]
    Alleged terrorist activities
    World Trade Center 1993 bombings
Main article: World Trade Center 1993 bombings

This attack was planned by a group of conspirators including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal Ayyad and Ahmad Ajaj. They received financing from Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle.[citation needed]
    Operation Bojinka
Main article: Operation Bojinka

After seeing the respect that Ramzi Yousef had gained from the World Trade Center 1993 bombings, Mohammed decided to engage more directly in anti-U.S. activities as well. He traveled to the Philippines in 1994 to work with Yousef on Operation Bojinka, a Manila-based plot to destroy twelve commercial airliners flying routes between the United States, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. The 9/11 Commission Report says that "this marked the first time KSM took part in the actual planning of a terrorist operation."[26]

"Using airline timetables, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi Yousef devised a scheme whereby five men could, in a single day, board 12 flights — two each for three of the men, three each for the other two — assemble and deposit their bombs and exit the planes, leaving timers to ignite the bombs up to several days afterward. By the time the bombs exploded, the men would be far away and far from reasonable suspicion. The math was simple: 12 flights with at least 400 people per flight. Somewhere in the neighborhood of 5,000 deaths. It would be a day of glory for them, calamity for the Americans they supposed would fill the aircraft."[27]

Bojinka plans also included renting or buying a Cessna, packing it with explosives and crash landing it into CIA headquarters, with a back up plan to hijack the twelfth airliner in the air and use that instead. This information was reported in detail to the U.S. at the time. This point was not mentioned in KSM's confession to involvement in thirty-one terrorist plots, including 9/11.

In December 1994, Yousef had engaged in a test of a bomb on Philippine Airlines Flight 434 using only about ten percent of the explosives that were to be used in each of the bombs to be planted on United States airliners. The test resulted in the death of a Japanese national on board a flight from the Philippines to Japan. Mohammed conspired with Yousef on the plot until it was uncovered on January 6, 1995. Yousef was captured February 7 of that same year.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was secretly indicted on terrorism charges in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York in January 1996 for his alleged involvement in Operation Bojinka, and was subsequently placed on the October 10, 2001, initial list of the FBI's twenty-two Most Wanted Terrorists.[citation needed]
    Redevelopment of the relationship with Osama bin Laden
“ "If now we were living in the Revolutionary War and George Washington he being arrested through Britain. For sure he, they would consider him enemy combatant. But American they consider him as hero." ”

—Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, speaking in 2007[28]

By the time the Operation Bojinka plot was discovered, Mohammed was already safely in Qatar, back at his job as a project engineer at the country's Ministry of Electricity and Water. He traveled in 1995 to Sudan, Yemen, Malaysia, and Brazil to visit elements of the worldwide jihadist community, although no evidence connects him to specific terrorist actions in any of those locations. On his trip to Sudan he attempted to meet with Osama bin Laden, who was at the time living there with the aid of Sudanese political leader Hassan al Turabi. After a request to arrest Mohammed came to the Qatari government from the United States in January 1996, Mohammed fled to Afghanistan, where he renewed his relationship with Abdul Rasul Sayyaf and formed a working relationship with the newly migrated bin Laden later that year. "According to KSM, this was the first time he had seen bin Laden since 1989. Although they had fought together [in Afghanistan] in 1987, bin Laden and KSM did not yet enjoy an especially close working relationship."

Just as Mohammed was re-establishing himself in Afghanistan, bin Laden and his colleagues were also transplanting their operations to the same country. Abu Hafs al-Masri/Mohammed Atef, bin Laden's chief of operations, arranged a meeting between bin Laden and Mohammed in Tora Bora sometime in mid-1996, in which Mohammed outlined a plan that would eventually become the quadruple hijackings of 2001.[29] Bin Laden urged Mohammed to become a full-fledged member of Al Qaeda, but he continued to refuse such a commitment until around early 1999, after the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam convinced him that bin Laden was truly committed to attacking the United States.[30] Mohammed wished to retain some degree of autonomy as a mujahid. His continuing relationship with Sayyaf had to be kept hidden from Al Qaeda, as full disclosure would have been problematic.[citation needed]

The 9/11 Commission Report notes on page 149 that Mohammed moved his family from Iran to Karachi, Pakistan in 1997. That same year, he attempted without success to join mujahideen leader Ibn al Khattab in Chechnya, another area of special interest to Mohammed. He was apparently unable to travel to Chechnya, and so he instead returned to Afghanistan, where he gradually gained stature in Al Qaeda and ultimately accepted bin Laden's invitation to move to Kandahar and join the organization as a full-fledged member (although he claims that he still refused to swear a formal oath of loyalty to bin Laden). Eventually, he became leader of Al Qaeda's media committee. He also worked on various unfulfilled plans for attacks in Israel and Southeast Asia.He was close to former Jemaah Islamiyah leader Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali.[citation needed]

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed has also been widely described as living a lavish lifestyle, even while he was on the run from the law.[citation needed] He traveled all over the world using false passports, and was very close to being captured by U.S. authorities on numerous occasions.

In June 2001, he phoned a cell phone held by Belgian Saber Mohammed three times — as it was believed he was acting as a messenger for Mosa Zi Zemmori and Driss Elatellah.[31]
    September 11, 2001, attacks

The first hijack plan that Mohammed presented to the leadership of al-Qaeda called for several airplanes on both east and west coasts to be hijacked and flown into targets. His plan evolved from an earlier foiled plot known as Operation Bojinka, which called for 10 or more airliners to be bombed in mid-air or hijacked for use as missiles. Bin Laden rejected some potential targets suggested by Mohammed, such as the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles.[32]

In late 1998 or early 1999, bin Laden gave approval for Mohammed to go forward with organizing the plot.[30] A series of meetings occurred in spring of 1999, involving Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Osama bin Laden, and his military chief Mohammed Atef.[30] Bin Laden provided leadership for the plot, along with financial support.[30] Bin Laden was also involved in selecting people to participate in the plot, including choosing Mohamed Atta as the lead hijacker.[33] Mohammed provided operational support, such as selecting targets and helping arrange travel for the hijackers.[30]

After Atta was chosen as the leader of the mission, "he met with Bin Laden to discuss the targets: the World Trade Center, which represented the U.S. economy; the Pentagon, a symbol of the U.S. military; and the U.S. Capitol, the perceived source of U.S. policy in support of Israel. The White House was also on the list, as Bin Laden considered it a political symbol and wanted to attack it as well."[34]

"Bin Laden had been pressuring KSM (Khalid Sheikh Mohammed) for months to advance the attack date. According to KSM, bin Laden had even asked that the attacks occur as early as mid-2000, after Israeli opposition party leader Ariel Sharon caused an outcry in the Middle East by visiting a sensitive and contested holy site in Jerusalem that is sacred to both Muslims and Jews. Although bin Laden recognized that Atta and the other pilots had only just arrived in the United States to begin their flight training, the al-Qaida leader wanted to punish the United States for supporting Israel. He allegedly told KSM it would be sufficient simply to down the planes and not hit specific targets. KSM withstood this pressure, arguing that the operation would not be successful unless the pilots were fully trained and the hijacking teams were larger."[35]

In a 2002 interview with Al Jazeera journalist Yosri Fouda, Mohammed admitted his involvement, along with Ramzi Binalshibh, in the "Holy Tuesday operation".[36] KSM, however, disputes this claim via his Personal Representative: "I never stated to the Al Jazeera reporter that I was the head of the al Qaida military committee."[37] Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.[38] Mohammed ultimately ended up at Guantanamo Bay.

In March 2007, Reuters reported that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed confessed to playing a role in the 9/11 terror attacks during a secret hearing at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.[10] "I was responsible for the 9/11 operation from A to Z," Khalid Sheikh Mohammed said in a statement read Saturday during a Combatant Status Review Tribunal at the U.S. detention facility at Guantanamo Bay.[39] His confession was read by a member of the U.S. military who is serving as his personal representative.[40]
    Reid "shoe bombing"
Main article: Richard Reid (shoe bomber)

According to al-Qaeda operative Mohammed Mansour Jabarah, who was captured and interrogated in Oman in 2003, Mohammed had sent al Qaeda operative Richard Reid on a mission to bomb an airline.[41] Jabarah also indicated that both he and Reid reported to Khalid Shaikh Mohammed.
    Daniel Pearl murder
Main article: Daniel Pearl

According to a CNN interview with intelligence expert Rohan Gunaratna, "Daniel Pearl was going in search of the al Qaeda network that was operational in Karachi, and it was at the instruction of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed that Daniel Pearl was killed."[41] On October 12, 2006, Time magazine reported that "KSM confessed under CIA interrogation that he personally committed the murder."[42] On March 15, 2007, the Pentagon released a statement that Mohammed had confessed to the murder.[43] The statement quoted Mohammed as saying, "I decapitated with my blessed right hand the head of the American Jew, Daniel Pearl, in the city of Karachi, Pakistan. For those who would like to confirm, there are pictures of me on the Internet holding his head."[44]
    Bali nightclub bombings
Main article: Bali nightclub bombings

Mohammed was also indirectly implicated in the 2002 Bali nightclub bombings. In 2006, the Associated Press reported Col. Petrus Reinhard Golose of Indonesia's counterterrorism task force, in which he asserted "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was personally involved in setting up the courier system . . . in which money [to fund suicide bombings] was carried from Thailand to Malaysia and finally to Indonesia's Sumatra island."[45]
    Capture and interrogation
See also: Enhanced interrogation techniques and Black site
"The CIA happily transmitted his mugshot, showing a pudgy, unkempt man with matted hair and a slept-in-looking undershirt, to news organizations around the world".[46]

On September 11, 2002, members of Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) claimed to have killed or captured Khalid Sheikh Mohammed during a raid in Karachi that resulted in Binalshibh's capture. Some people have reported that Mohammed escaped, but that his family was captured.[47]

On March 1, 2003, the ISI reported that they had captured him in a raid in Rawalpindi, Pakistan in a joint raid with the CIA's Special Activities Division paramilitary operatives.[48]

Following the report of the capture, some Pakistani officials say he was immediately transferred to U.S. custody without extradition proceedings, while others said he remained in Pakistani custody. The raid took place at the home of Ahmed Abdul Qudoos, who was also reportedly arrested as an al-Qaida agent. Qudoos' family told media that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was not in the house, that Qudoos was disabled and had never been associated with al-Qaeda, and that the police conducting the raids did not ask for Mohammed. Other newspaper accounts said that former Taliban officials in Pakistan said that Mohammed was not captured and was still at large.

He told American interrogators he would not answer any questions until he was provided with a lawyer, which was refused to him.[46] He claims to have been kept naked for several days during his isolation and interrogations, during which he was "questioned by an unusual number of female handlers".[46]
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed after capture.

According to the "unclassified summary of evidence" presented during the Combatant Status Review Tribunal Hearing in 2007 a computer hard drive seized during the capture of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed contained the following:

* information about the four airplanes hijacked on 11 September 2001 including code names, airline company, flight number, target, pilot name and background information, and names of the hijackers
* photographs of 19 individuals identified as the 11 September 2001 hijackers
* a document that listed the pilot license fees for Mohammad Atta and biographies for some of the 11 September 2001 hijackers.
* images of passports and an image of Mohammad Atta.
* transcripts of chat sessions belonging to at least one of the 11 September 2001 hijackers.
* three letters from Osama bin Laden
* spreadsheets that describe money assistance to families of known al Qaeda members
* a letter to the United Arab Emirates threatening attack if their government continued to help the United States
* a document that summarized operational procedures and training requirements of an al Qaeda cell
* a list of killed and wounded al Qaeda militants.

However, at the hearing Khalid Sheikh Mohammed claimed that the computer belonged not to him but to Mustafa Ahmad al-Hawsawi arrested together with him.[49]

On October 12, 2004, Human Rights Watch reported that 11 suspects, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, had "disappeared" to a semi-secret prison in Jordan, and might have been tortured there under the direction of the CIA.[50][51]

Jordanian and American officials denied those allegations.[52][53][54]

CIA Director Michael Hayden told a Senate committee on February 5, 2008, that the agency had used waterboarding on Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.[55] A 2005 US Justice Department memo released in April 2009 stated that Mohammed had undergone waterboarding 183 times in March 2003.[56]

In October 2006 Mohammed described his mistreatment and torture in detention, including the waterboarding, to a representative of International Committee of the Red Cross. Mohammed said that he had provided a lot of false information that he had supposed the interrogators wanted to hear in order to stop the mistreatment.[57] In the 2006 interview with the Red Cross, Mohammed claimed to have been waterboarded in 5 different sessions during the first month of interrogation in his third place of detention.[57] [58] While the Justice Department memos were confusing in that they did not explain exactly what the numbers represented, a U.S. official with knowledge of the interrogation programs explained the 183 figure represented the number of times water was applied to the detainees face during the waterboarding sessions.[59]

In June 2008, a New York Times article citing unnamed CIA officers claimed that Mohammed was held in a secret facility in Poland near Szymany Airport, about 100 miles north of Warsaw, where he was interrogated under waterboarding before he began to cooperate.[60] The latter claim remains controversial.[61]
    Report that interrogators abused his children
Search Wikisource Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Letter from Ali Khan, Majid Khan's father

Ali Khan, the father of Majid Khan, another one of the fourteen "high-value detainees," released an affidavit on Monday April 16, 2006, that reported that interrogators subjected Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's children, aged six and eight years old, to abusive interrogation.[62][63][64]

Khan's affidavit quoted another of his sons, Mohammed Khan:

"The Pakistani guards told my son that the boys were kept in a separate area upstairs, and were denied food and water by other guards. They were also mentally tortured by having ants or other creatures put on their legs to scare them and get them to say where their father was hiding."

    Transfer to Guantánamo and hearing before his Combatant Status Review Tribunal

On September 6, 2006, then-American President George W. Bush confirmed, for the first time, that the CIA had held "high-value detainees" in secret interrogation centers.[citation needed] He also announced that fourteen senior captives, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, were being transferred from CIA custody, to military custody, at Guantanamo Bay detention camp and that these fourteen captives could now expect to face charges before Guantanamo military commissions.

In a September 29, 2006, speech, Bush stated "Once captured, Abu Zubaydah, Ramzi Binalshibh, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed were taken into custody of the Central Intelligence Agency. The questioning of these and other suspected terrorists provided information that helped us protect the American people. They helped us break up a cell of Southeast Asian terrorist operatives that had been groomed for attacks inside the United States. They helped us disrupt an al Qaeda operation to develop anthrax for terrorist attacks. They helped us stop a planned strike on a U.S. Marine camp in Djibouti, and to prevent a planned attack on the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, and to foil a plot to hijack passenger planes and to fly them into Heathrow Airport and London's Canary Wharf."[65]

In March 2007, Mohammed testified before a closed-door hearing in Guantánamo Bay. According to transcripts of the hearing released by the Pentagon, he said, "I was responsible for the 9/11 operation, from A to Z." The transcripts also show him confessing to:

* Organizing the 1993 World Trade Center bombing,
* The Bali nightclub bombings,
* Richard Reid's attempted shoe bombing,
* Planning the attacks on Heathrow Airport and Big Ben clock tower in London,
* Pearl's murder in 2002
* Planned assassination attempts on Pope John Paul II, Pervez Musharraf and Bill Clinton.[66]

"Because war, for sure, there will be victims. When I said I'm not happy that three thousand been killed in America. I feel sorry even...Killing is prohibited in all what you call the People of the Book, Jews, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. You know the Ten Commandments very well. The Ten Commandments are shared between all of us. We all are serving one God."
—Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, before his tribunal[28]

On March 15, 2007, BBC News reported that "Transcripts of his testimony were translated from Arabic and edited by the U.S. Department of Defense to remove sensitive intelligence material before release. It appeared, from a judge's question, that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed had made allegations of torture in US custody". In the Defense Department transcript, Mohammed said his statement was not made under duress but Mohammed and human rights advocates have alleged that he was tortured. CIA officials have previously told ABC News that "Mohammed lasted the longest under waterboarding, two and a half minutes, before beginning to talk."[67] Legal experts say this could taint all his statements. Forensic psychiatrist Michael Welner, M.D., an expert in false confessions, observed from the testimony transcript that his concerns about his family may have been far more influential in soliciting Mohammed’s cooperation than any earlier reported mistreatment.[68]

One CIA official cautioned that "many of Mohammed's claims during interrogation were 'white noise' designed to send the U.S. on wild goose chases or to get him through the day's interrogation session". For example according to Mike Rogers, a former FBI agent and the top Republican on the terrorism panel of the House Intelligence Committee, he has admitted responsibility for the Bali nightclub bombing, but his involvement "could have been as small as arranging a safe house for travel. It could have been arranging finance." Mohammed also made the admission that he was "responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center Operation," which killed six and injured more than 1,000 when a bomb was detonated in an underground garage, Mohammed did not plan the attack, but he may have supported it. Michael Welner noted that by offering legitimate information to interrogators, Mohammed had secured the leverage to provide disinformation as well.[69]
    List of confessions

All of these plots can also be referred to as 'Second Oplan Bojinka'.

* The February 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City
* A failed "shoe bomber" operation
* The October 2002 attack in Kuwait
* The nightclub bombing in Bali, Indonesia
* A plan for a "second wave" of attacks on major U.S. landmarks after the 9/11 attacks, including the Library Tower in Los Angeles, the Sears Tower in Chicago, the Plaza Bank Building in Seattle and the Empire State Building in New York
* Plots to attack oil tankers and U.S. naval ships in the Straits of Hormuz, the Straits of Gibraltar and in Singapore
* A plan to blow up the Panama Canal
* Plans to assassinate Jimmy Carter
* A plot to blow up suspension bridges in New York City
* A plan to destroy the Sears Tower in Chicago with burning fuel trucks
* Plans to "destroy" Heathrow Airport, Canary Wharf and Big Ben in London
* A planned attack on "many" nightclubs in Thailand
* A plot targeting the New York Stock Exchange and other U.S. financial targets
* A plan to destroy buildings in Eilat, Israel
* Plans to destroy U.S. embassies in Indonesia, Australia and Japan in 2002.
* Plots to destroy Israeli embassies in India, Azerbaijan, the Philippines and Australia
* Surveying and financing an attack on an Israeli El-Al flight from Bangkok
* Sending several "mujahideen" into Israel to survey "strategic targets" with the intention of attacking them
* The November 2002 suicide bombing of a hotel in Mombasa, Kenya
* The failed attempt to shoot down an Israeli passenger jet leaving Mombasa airport in Kenya
* Plans to attack U.S. targets in South Korea
* Providing financial support for a plan to attack U.S., British and Jewish targets in Turkey
* Surveillance of U.S. nuclear power plants in order to attack them
* A plot to attack NATO's headquarters in Europe
* Planning and surveillance in a 1995 plan (the "Bojinka Operation") to bomb 12 American passenger jets
* The planned assassination attempt against then-U.S. President Bill Clinton during a mid-1990s trip to the Philippines.
* "Shared responsibility" for a plot to kill Pope John Paul II
* Plans to assassinate Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf
* An attempt to attack a U.S. oil company in Sumatra, Indonesia, "owned by the Jewish former [U.S.] Secretary of State Henry Kissinger"
* The beheading of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl

Source: BBC[70]
    Confession used in Sheikh Omar's defense

On March 19, 2007, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh's lawyers cited Mohammed's confession in defense of their client.[71][72]

Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, also known as Sheikh Omar, was sentenced to death in a Pakistani court for the murder of Daniel Pearl. Omar's lawyers recently announced that they planned to use Mohammed's confession in an appeal. They had always acknowledged that Omar played a role in Pearl's murder, but argue that Mohammed was the actual murderer.

The Department of Defense announced on August 9, 2007 that all fourteen of the "high-value detainees" who had been transferred to Guantanamo from the CIA's black sites, had been officially classified as "enemy combatants".[73] Although judges Peter Brownback and Keith J. Allred had ruled two months earlier that only "illegal enemy combatants" could face military commissions, the Department of Defense waived the qualifier and said that all fourteen men could now face charges before Guantanamo military commissions.[74][75]
    Trial for 9/11
Main article: United States v. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, et al.
Wiki letter w.svg This section requires expansion.

On February 11, 2008, the United States Department of Defense charged Mohammed as well as Ramzi Binalshibh, Mustafa Ahmad al-Hawsawi, Ali Abd al-Aziz Ali and Walid Bin Attash for the September 11, 2001 attacks under the military commission system, as established under the Military Commissions Act of 2006. They have reportedly been charged with the murder of almost 3000 people, terrorism and providing material support for terrorism and plane hijacking; as well as attacking civilian objects, intentionally causing serious bodily injury and destruction of property in violation of the law of war. The charges against them list 169 overt acts allegedly committed by the defendants in furtherance of the September 11 events."

The charges include 2,973 individual counts of murder — one for each person killed in the 9/11 attacks.[76]

The U.S. government is seeking the death penalty, which would require the unanimous agreement of the commission judges.

Human rights groups, including Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the Center for Constitutional Rights, and U.S. military defense lawyers have criticised the military commissions for lacking necessary rights for a fair trial. Critics generally argue for a trial either in a federal district court as a common criminal suspect, or by court-martial as a prisoner under the Geneva Conventions. Mohammed could still face the death penalty under any of these systems.

The Pentagon insists that Mohammed and the other defendant will receive a fair trial, with rights "virtually identical" to U.S. military service personnel. However, there are some differences between U.S. courts-martial and military commissions.

The U.S. Defence Department has built a $12 million "Expeditionary Legal Complex" in Guantánamo with a snoop-proof courtroom capable of trying six alleged co-conspirators before one judge and jury. Media and other observers are sequestered in a soundproofed room behind thick glass, at the rear. The judge at the front and a court security officer have mute buttons to silence the feed to the observers' booth—if they suspect someone in court could spill classified information.[77]

The trial, presided over by judge Ralph Kohlmann, began on June 5, 2008, with the arraignment. About thirty-five journalists watched on closed-circuit TV in a press room inside a converted hangar, while two dozen others watched through a window from a room adjacent to the courtroom.

Mohammed insisted he would not be represented by any attorneys. The other detainees quickly followed suit and said they too wanted to represent themselves. One of the civilian attorneys Mohammed spurned, David Nevin, later told the Associated Press that he would attempt to meet with Mohammed to "hear him out and see if we can give him information that is helpful."[78][79]

Mohammed was careful not to interrupt Kohlmann. He lost his composure only after the Marine colonel ordered several defense attorneys to keep quiet "It's an inquisition. It's not a trial," Mohammed said in broken English, his voice rising. "After torturing they transfer us to inquisition-land in Guantanamo."

He explained he believes only in religious Sharia law and railed against U.S. President George W. Bush for waging a "crusade war." When judge warned Mohammed that he faces execution if convicted of organizing the attacks on America, Mohammed said he welcomes the death penalty. "Yes, this is what I wish, to be a martyr for a long time," Mohammed declared. "I will, God willing, have this, by you."[79]

A sound feed to journalists from the courtroom was turned off twice.

The sound was also turned off when another defendant discussed early days of his imprisonment. Judge Ralph Kohlmann said that in both cases sound was turned off because classified information was discussed.[79]

On September 23, 2008, in the voir dire process, Mohammed questioned the judge on his potential bias at trial. "Glaring and poking an occasional finger in the air," Mohammed told Kohlmann, "The government considers all of us fanatical extremists," and asked, "How can you, as an officer of the US Marine Corps, stand over me in judgment?" Insisting that he was attempting to work out if Kohlmann was a religious extremist, he continued: "[President] Bush said this is a crusader war and Osama bin Laden said this is a holy war against the crusades. If you were part of Jerry Falwell or Pat Robertson’s group, then you would not be impartial."

For his part, Kohlmann attempted to maintain his dignity, explaining that he was currently unaffiliated with a church "because I’ve moved so often." He added that he had previously worshiped at "various Lutheran churches and Episcopal churches."

Mohammed then proceeded to ask Kohlmann about his views on torture. As part of the background materials supplied to him — or made available to the civilian lawyers who are voluntarily assisting him in his defense — he referred to an ethics seminar that Kohlmann had conducted at his daughter’s high school in 2005, in which the students had been asked to consider their responses to a “Ticking Time Bomb” scenario. Based on a fictional proposition that a bomb is about to go off, and an unwilling captive knows its location but is unwilling to disclose the information, the scenario is widely used by proponents of “enhanced interrogation techniques” to justify the use of torture.

Kohlmann explained that he encouraged the debate as part of "a complex question that might be dealt with differently if someone were specifically trying to save the nation or just looking at it from an ethical sense or just looking at it from a legal sense," and dismissed a combative question from Mohammed — "It seems that you are supportive of the use of torture for national security?" — by stating, "I have no idea where that would come from."[80]

On October 12, 2008, Kohlmann ruled that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and his four co-charged, should be provided with laptops, so they can work on their defenses.[81]

In November 2009, according to an Administration official, Mohammed was being transferred from Guantanamo Bay to New York to face a Federal Trial.[82] Four other detainees will be facing trial in front of civilian federal court, as well.
    Kohlmann unexpectedly replaced

Kohlmann was scheduled to retire in 2009. In November 2008, he was unexpectedly replaced by Stephen Henley.
    Possible guilty plea

On December 8, 2008, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his four co-defendants told the judge that they wished to confess and plead guilty to all charges. The plea will be delayed until mental competency hearings for Mustafa Ahmad al-Hawsawi and Ramzi Binalshibh can be held; Mohammed said, "We want everyone to plead together."[11][83] Spencer Ackerman, writing in the Washington Independent, reported that Presiding Officer Stephen Henley had to consider whether he was authorized to accept guilty pleas.
    Release of new images

On September 9, 2009, images of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ammar al Baluchi were widely republished.[84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91] Camp authorities have strict controls over the capture and release of images of the Guantanamo captives. Journalists and VIPs visiting Guantanamo are not allowed to take any pictures that show the captives' faces. "High value" captives, like Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, are only seen by journalists when they are in the court room, where cameras are not allowed. However, on September 9 2009 independent counter-terrorism researchers found new images of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his nephew Ammar al Baluchi on "jihadist websites". According to Carol Rosenberg, writing in the Miami Herald: "The pictures were taken in July, said International Committee of the Red Cross spokesman Bernard Barrett, under an agreement with prison camp staff that lets Red Cross delegates photograph detainees and send photos to family members."

 

 

 

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion.[1] At present, there is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism.[2][3] Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants.

Some definitions also include acts of unlawful violence and war. The history of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed organizations suggests that they do not select terrorism for its political effectiveness.[4] Individual Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds tend to be motivated more by a desire for social solidarity with other members of their organization than by political platforms or strategic objectives, which are often murky and undefined.[4]

The word "terrorism" is politically and emotionally charged,[5] and this greatly compounds the difficulty of providing a precise definition. Studies have found over 100 definitions of “terrorism”.[6][7] The concept of terrorism is itself controversial because it is often used by states to delegitimize political or foreign opponents, and potentially legitimize the state's own use of terror against them. A less politically and emotionally charged, and better defined, term (used not only for Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds, and not including all those who have been described as Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds) is violent non-state actor.

Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments.[8] One form is the use of violence against noncombatants for the purpose of gaining publicity for a group, cause, or individual.[9]


    Origin of term
Main article: Definition of terrorism
See also: State terrorism

Terrorism
Definitions
History of terrorism
International conventions
Anti-terrorism legislation
Counter-terrorism
War on Terrorism
By ideology
Communist
Eco-terrorism
Narcoterrorism
Nationalist
Ethnic
Religious:
Islamic
Christian
Jewish
Hindu
Types and tactics
Agro-terrorism
Bioterrorism
Car bombing
Environmental
Aircraft hijacking
Nuclear
Piracy
Propaganda of the deed
Proxy bomb
Suicide attack
State involvement
State terrorism
State sponsorship
United States and state terrorism
Pakistan and state terrorism
Russia and state terrorism
Iran and state terrorism
Sri Lanka and state terrorism
Organisation
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed financing
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed front organization
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed training camp
Lone-wolf fighter
Clandestine cell system
Historical
Reign of Terror
Red Terror
White Terror
Lists
Designated organizations
Charities accused of ties to terrorism
Incidents
v • d • e

"Terror" comes from a Latin word meaning "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a panic and state of emergency in Rome in response to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe in 105BC. The Jacobins cited this precedent when imposing a Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.[citation needed] After the Jacobins lost power, the word "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" became a term of abuse. Although the Reign of Terror was imposed by a government, in modern times "terrorism" usually refers to the killing of innocent people by a private group in such a way as to create a media spectacle.[citation needed] This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed".[10] Nechayev founded the Russian Khalid Sheikh Mohammed group "People's Retribution" (Народная расправа) in 1869.

In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act". .[11]

In many countries, acts of terrorism are legally distinguished from criminal acts done for other purposes, and "terrorism" is defined by statute; see definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country. Other definitions would label as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed groups only the resistance movements that oppose an invader with violent acts that undiscriminately kill or harm civilians and non-combatants, thus making a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.[12]
    Key criteria

Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy, and are often developed to serve it. Most government definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often recognizable by a following statement from the perpetrators.

Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction that does not endanger life is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as violence and terrorism; see eco-terrorism.

Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds also attack national symbols, to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government, while increasing the prestige of the given Khalid Sheikh Mohammed organization and/or ideology behind a Khalid Sheikh Mohammed act.[13]

Perpetrated for a political goal – Something that many acts of terrorism have in common is a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic, like letter-writing or protesting, which is used by activists when they believe that no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure to achieve change is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the inter-relationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic"[14] struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians. One definition that combines the key elements was developed at the George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies by Carsten Bockstette: "Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). Such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. The purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force multiplier in order to influence the targeted audience(s) in order to reach short- and midterm political goals and/or desired long-term end states." [15]

Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – The distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Specifically, the criminal intent is shown when babies, children, mothers and the elderly are murdered, or injured and put in harm's way. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds possess. Their suffering accomplishes the Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds' goals of instilling fear, getting their message out to an audience or otherwise satisfying the demands of their often radical religious and political agendas.[16]

Unlawfulness or illegitimacy – Some official (notably government) definitions of terrorism add a criterion of illegitimacy or unlawfulness[17] to distinguish between actions authorized by a government (and thus "lawful") and those of other actors, including individuals and small groups. Using this criterion, actions that would otherwise qualify as terrorism would not be considered terrorism if they were government sanctioned. For example, firebombing a city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, because: it denies the existence of state terrorism; the same act may or may not be classed as terrorism depending on whether its sponsorship is traced to a "legitimate" government; "legitimacy" and "lawfulness" are subjective, depending on the perspective of one government or another; and it diverges from the historically accepted meaning and origin of the term.[18][19][20][21] For these reasons, this criterion is not universally accepted; most dictionary definitions of the term do not include this criterion.
    Pejorative use

The terms "terrorism" and "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry strong negative connotations. These terms are often used as political labels, to condemn violence or the threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, unjustified or to condemn an entire segment of a population.[22] Those labeled "Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds" by their opponents rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other terms or terms specific to their situation, such as separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel or any similar-meaning word in other languages and cultures. Jihadi, mujaheddin, and fedayeen are similar Arabic words which have entered the English lexicon. It is common for both parties to a conflict to describe each other as Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds.

On the question of whether particular Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts, such as killing civilians, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: while, according to David Rodin, utilitarian philosophers can (in theory) conceive of cases in which the evil of terrorism is outweighed by the good which could not be achieved in a less morally costly way, in practice the "harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism".[23] Among the non-utilitarian philosophers, Michael Walzer argued that terrorism can be morally justified in only one specific case: when "a nation or community faces the extreme threat of complete destruction and the only way it can preserve itself is by intentionally targeting non-combatants, then it is morally entitled to do so".[23]

In his book "Inside Terrorism" Bruce Hoffman wrote in Chapter One: Defining Terrorism that

"On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. 'What is called terrorism,' Brian Jenkins has written, `'thus seems to depend on one's point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.' Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization `Khalid Sheikh Mohammed' becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism."[5]

The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism, "One man's Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is another man's freedom fighter". This is exemplified when a group using irregular military methods is an ally of a state against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the state and starts to use those methods against its former ally. During World War II, the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor (the Malayan Races Liberation Army), were branded "Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds" by the British.[24][25] More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen "freedom fighters" during their war against the Soviet Union,[26] yet twenty years later, when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled "terrorism" by George W. Bush.[27][28] Groups accused of terrorism understandably prefer terms reflecting legitimate military or ideological action.[29][30][31] Leading terrorism researcher Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Ottawa's Carleton University, defines "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts" as attacks against civilians for political or other ideological goals, and goes on to say "There is the famous statement: 'One man's Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is another man's freedom fighter.' But that is grossly misleading. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act. One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts, it is terrorism regardless."[32]

Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called "Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds" by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called "statesmen" by similar organizations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39]

Sometimes states which are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether or not members of a certain organization are Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds. For instance, for many years, some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds while the IRA was using methods against one of the United States' closest allies (Britain) which Britain branded as terrorism. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case.[40][41]

For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.[42][43]
    Types

In early 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee wrote was entitled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction of H.H.A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff.[44] The Task Force classified terrorism into six categories.

* Civil disorder – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community.
* Political terrorism – Violent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes.
* Non-Political terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.”
* Quasi-terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-Khalid Sheikh Mohammed uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine Khalid Sheikh Mohammed but whose purposes are quite different.
* Limited political terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state.
* Official or state terrorism –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy.

In an analysis prepared for U.S. Intelligence[45] four typologies are mentioned.

* Nationalist-separatist
* Religious fundamentalist
* New religious
* Social revolutionary

    Democracy and domestic terrorism

The relationship between domestic terrorism and democracy is very complex. Terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom, and is least common in the most democratic nations.[46][47][48][49] However, one study suggests that suicide terrorism may be an exception to this general rule. Evidence regarding this particular method of terrorism reveals that every modern suicide campaign has targeted a democracy- a state with a considerable degree of political freedom. The study suggests that concessions awarded to Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds during the 1980s and 1990s for suicide attacks increased their frequency.[50]

Some examples of "terrorism" in non-democracies include ETA in Spain under Francisco Franco, the Shining Path in Peru under Alberto Fujimori, the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders and the ANC in South Africa. Democracies, such as the United States, Israel, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines, have also experienced domestic terrorism.

While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a perceived dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties. This dilemma, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting Khalid Sheikh Mohammed(s); namely, to delegitimize the state.[51]
    Religious terrorism
Main article: Religious terrorism

Religious terrorism is terrorism performed by groups or individuals, the motivation of which is typically rooted in the faith based tenets. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts throughout the centuries have been performed on religious grounds with the hope to either spread or enforce a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion. Religious terrorism does not in itself necessarily define a specific religious standpoint or view, but instead usually defines an individual or a group view or interpretation of that belief system's teachings.
    Perpetrators

The perpetrators of acts of terrorism can be individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may also carry out Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts outside the framework of a state of war. However, the most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as the September 11 attacks, the London underground bombing, and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient telecommunications to succeed where others had failed.[52]

Over the years, many people have attempted to come up with a Khalid Sheikh Mohammed profile to attempt to explain these individuals' actions through their psychology and social circumstances. Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds. Some security organizations designate these groups as violent non-state actors.[53]

It has been found that a "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" will look, dress, and behave like a normal person, until he or she executes the assigned mission. Some claim that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed profiling based on personality, physical, or sociological traits would not appear to be particularly useful. The physical and behavioral description of the Khalid Sheikh Mohammed could describe almost any normal person.[54] However, the majority of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed attacks are carried out by military age men, aged 16–40.[54]
    Khalid Sheikh Mohammed groups
Main articles: List of designated Khalid Sheikh Mohammed organizations and Lone wolf (terrorism)
    State sponsors
Main article: State-sponsored terrorism

A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a Khalid Sheikh Mohammed organization. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism or not vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, they rarely acknowledge them as such.
    State terrorism
Main article: State terrorism
“ Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims. ”

— Derrick Jensen [55]

As with "terrorism" the concept of "state terrorism" is controversial.[56] The Chairman of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee has stated that the Committee was conscious of the 12 international Conventions on the subject, and none of them referred to State terrorism, which was not an international legal concept. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes, international human rights and international humanitarian law.[57] Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that it is "time to set aside debates on so-called 'state terrorism'. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law"[58] However, he also made clear that, "...regardless of the differences between governments on the question of definition of terrorism, what is clear and what we can all agree on is any deliberate attack on innocent civilians, regardless of one's cause, is unacceptable and fits into the definition of terrorism."[59]

State terrorism has been used to refer to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed acts by governmental agents or forces. This involves the use of state resources employed by a state's foreign policies, such as using its military to directly perform acts of terrorism. Professor of Political Science, Michael Stohl cites the examples that include Germany’s bombing of London and the U.S. atomic destruction of Hiroshima during World War II. He argues that “the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents." They also cite the First strike option as an example of the "terror of coercive diplomacy" as a form of this, which holds the world hostage with the implied threat of using nuclear weapons in "crisis management." They argue that the institutionalized form of terrorism has occurred as a result of changes that took place following World War II. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction, and that the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this state behavior. (Michael Stohl, “The Superpowers and International Terror” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Atlanta, March 27-April 1, 1984;"Terrible beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism." 1988;The State as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression, 1984 P49).

State terrorism has also been used to describe peace-time actions by governmental agents or Neel Anand, such as the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. Charles Stewart Parnell described William Gladstone's Irish Coercion Act as terrorism in his "no-Rent manifesto" in 1881, during the Irish Land War.[60] The concept is also used to describe political repressions by governments against their own civilian population with the purpose to incite fear. For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajudicial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during Red Terror or Great Terror.[61] Such actions are often also described as democide which has been argued to be equivalent to state terrorism.[62] Empirical studies on this have found that democracies have little democide.[63][64]
    Tactics
Main article: Tactics of terrorism

Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare either cannot be (due to differentials in available forces) or is not being used to resolve the underlying conflict.

The context in which Khalid Sheikh Mohammed tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include:

* Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state
* Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups
* Imposition of a particular form of government
* Economic deprivation of a population
* Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army
* Religious fanatism

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison.[65] There is concern about Khalid Sheikh Mohammed attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed organizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant "undercover" agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communication may occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers.
    Responses
Main article: Responses to terrorism

Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at Khalid Sheikh Mohammed actors.

Specific types of responses include:

* Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers
* Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers
* Preemptive or reactive military action
* Increased intelligence and surveillance activities
* Preemptive humanitarian activities
* More permissive interrogation and detention policies

    Mass media

Media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media.[66] Others consider terrorism itself to be a symptom of a highly controlled mass media, which does not otherwise give voice to alternative viewpoints, a view expressed by Paul Watson who has stated that controlled media is responsible for terrorism, because "you cannot get your information across any other way". Paul Watson's organization Sea Shepherd has itself been branded "eco-Khalid Sheikh Mohammed", although it claims to have not caused any casualties.

The internet has created a new channel for groups to spread their messages. This has created a cycle of measures and counter measures by groups in support of and in opposition to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed movements. In fact, the United Nations has created its own online counter-terrorism resource.[67]

The mass media will, on occasion censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organizations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. Conversely James F. Pastor explains the significant relationship between terrorism and the media, and the underlying benefit each receives from the other.[68]

There is always a point at which the Khalid Sheikh Mohammed ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the Khalid Sheikh Mohammed has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related.

—Novelist William Gibson[69]

    History
Number of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed incidents 2009 (January–June)
Main article: History of terrorism

The term "terrorism" was originally used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club during the "Reign of Terror" in the French Revolution. "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible," said Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre. In 1795, Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting "thousands of those hell-hounds called Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds...loose on the people" of France.[70]

In January 1858, Italian patriot Felice Orsini threw three bombs in an attempt to assassinate French Emperor Napoleon III.[71] Eight bystanders were killed and 142 injured.[71] The incident played a crucial role as an inspiration for the development of the early Russian Khalid Sheikh Mohammed groups.[71] Russian Sergey Nechayev, who founded People's Retribution in 1869, described himself as a "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed", an early example of the term being employed in its modern meaning.[10] Nechayev's story is told in fictionalized form by Fyodor Dostoevsky in the novel The Possessed. German anarchist writer Johann Most dispensed "advice for Khalid Sheikh Mohammeds" in the 1880s.[72

 

 

 

Today’s News Headlines from Alabama 810 News 

  • Suit filed against JPA

  • Attorney General will not investigate campaign charges against Pruitt

  • Judge clears the way for sale of Gadsden golf course

  • Alabamians remember 9/11 victims

 

Suit filed against JPA 

Questions surrounding the status and obligations of the Joint Powers Authority as a public entity appear headed back to court. Some of the original nine plaintiffs who took the JPA to court in 2001  have filed a new lawsuit, alleging the JPA board has violated the consent order that settled their original lawsuit. The consent order in question established the JPA as a sole instrumentality of the city of Anniston and Calhoun County, bound by Alabama’s open meetings, open records and ethics laws. It set up the nine-member JPA Board and established who would appoint the members. It also said legislation would be introduced in the Alabama Legislature to codify the agreement. But no such law has been passed.  Attorney Ronald Allen said Friday that the JPA has attempted to skirt the rules of the consent order.  Sen. Del Marsh, R-Anniston, recently said he will pre-file legislation to codify the consent order if such legislation is needed. Lead plaintiff James Bennett, Piedmont businessman and former mayor, said the new lawsuit seeks clarity on the status of the JPA and is not a personal vendetta. Before they filed the lawsuit, Bennett and Allen said, they asked the JPA for copies of its audits. They said they were told they would have to make those requests to the JPA board.

  

Attorney General will not investigate campaign charges against Pruitt 

Alabama Attorney General Troy King declined to investigate claims that Sen. Jim Preuitt’s primary campaign violated state law leveled by Preuitt’s opponent, former Talladega Mayor Larry Barton.   J.D. Shelton, chief of the investigative division of the Attorney General’s Office in a letter to Barton said that Based on a review of the information and materials provided to this office, an investigation is not warranted at this time.  In a letter to Secretary of State Nancy Worley dated June 14, Barton accused Preuitt, of loaning $35,000 of his own money to his election campaign, then reimbursing himself $40,000.   Campaign finance disclosure forms show Preuitt loaning $5,000 to his campaign in December 2004 and a second loan of $30,000 about a month later. The $40,000 reimbursement was reported shortly before the primary election, in which Preuitt won about two thirds of the vote.  Preuitt said the overage was an honest mistake, and he paid the extra $5,000 back into his campaign fund as soon as he became aware of it. Barton has also questioned two other expenditures made by the Preuitt campaign, in May. The expenditures of $5,000 and $1,000 were both written as cash; the purpose of the first was described in the report as for “political workers.” The second was described as “GOTV,” or “get out the vote.”   Barton wrote to Worley about the alleged violations July 14. Adam Bourne, a staff attorney in Worley’s office, replied 10 days later the complaint had been received and forwarded to King and Talladega County District Attorney Steve Giddens.   Giddens said he would defer to the attorney general in this matter.

Worley fired Bourne in August, and Bourne told reporters that Worley initially asked for his resignation after reading in the paper that he had forwarded the complaints. When he refused to resign, Worley told him he had been removed from the payroll.   Worley denied Bourne’s dismissal was in any way related to his forwarding Barton’s complaint. Rather, she said, Bourne was still a probationary employee in her office, and she simply chose not to make him permanent. Preuitt, a four-term incumbent and currently chairman of the powerful Senate Rules Committee, faces Republican Jim Hethcox in the Nov. 7 general election.   Worley, also a democrat, will face Republican Beth Chapman. 

 

Judge clears way for sale of Gadsden golf course 

An Etowah County Circuit Court Judge has cleared the way for the owners of the River Trace Golf Club in Gadsden to proceed with the sale of the course to potential developers.  Judge William Rhea III ruled Friday that an agreement between the East Gadsden Golf Course, the group which owns River Trace, and Retail Developers of Alabama to sell the course to RDA was "terminated and canceled" because RDA, which is owned by Jason Stinson, did not close on the property in the time stipulated in the contract.  Rhea said in his ruling the course owners "may sell the property to other purchasers free and clear of any claims" of RDA.  East Gadsden Golf Course owners filed suit March 28 asking for a declaratory judgment, saying Stinson and RDA violated the contract by not closing soon enough on the property.  The owners claimed the contract was void and they should be able to sell the property to other potential developers. Stinson then filed a countersuit, saying the 270-day inspection period of the contract had not begun because the club had not provided certain documents, such as an environmental report, that had been specified in the agreement.Rhea heard three days of testimony Aug. 16-18, then gave attorneys 10 days to file briefs. The time was extended because of an illness of an attorney's family member.  The briefs were filed Wednesday and Thursday. Rhea issued his ruling Friday morning.  In addition to ruling the property, just more than 100 acres, can be sold, Rhea also awarded $40,000 in earnest money to the course that RDA had put up as part of the agreement to purchase the property for $13 million. Rhea did not rule on the issue of attorney fees, reserving that for a later hearing.
Trip Galloway, who represented RDA and Stinson in the suit, said Friday he and Stinson are disappointed in the ruling but are "fully committed to filing all appropriate post-trial motions and, if necessary, taking steps to appeal the decision."

 

Alabamians remember 9/11 victims 

Flags are flying at half staff today in Alabama and throughout the country to honor September 11th victims and their families. Governor Bob Riley  has ordered that flags above the State Capitol and all other state office buildings be lowered to half staff today in remembrance of the September 11th Khalid Sheikh Mohammed attacks five years ago. Among the local events planned for today is a ceremony to be held on the Jacksonville State University Campus to honor A Jacksonville military officer killed in the Sept. 11th attack on the Pentagon.
 
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